Reference: LeetCode
Difficulty: Medium

Problem

Given an array of integers and an integer k, you need to find the total number of continuous subarrays whose sum equals to k.

Example:

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Input:nums = [1,1,1], k = 2
Output: 2

Note:

  • The length of the array is in range [1, 20,000].
  • The range of numbers in the array is [-1000, 1000] and the range of the integer k is [-1e7, 1e7].

Follow up: Can you reduce the time complexity to $O(N)$?

Analysis

Brute-Force

Time: $O(N^3)$
Space: $O(1)$

Cummulative Sum

The idea is based on sum(start, end) = sum(0, end) - sum(0, start).

Time: $O(N^2)$
Space: $O(N)$

Improvement:

Actually, we can do it without extra space. The following code iterate through each possible subarray. We notice that we can accumulate the sum in each step.

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public int subarraySum(int[] nums, int k) {
// assume nums is not null
int n = nums.length;
int count = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
int sum = 0;
for (int j = i; j < n; ++j) {
sum += nums[j];
if (sum == k) {
++count;
}
}
}
return count;
}

Time: $O(N^2)$
Space: $O(1)$

Hash Map

Intuition:

First, let’s assume k = 0. We denote sum[i] be the sum of elements in [0, i], which is like a prefix sum.

For sum[i] and sum[j] (i <= j), if they are equal, we would say the sum of elements at i+1, i+2, ..., j between i and j is 0.

Generally, we can have the difference between sum[i] and sum[j] is k, so the the sum of these elements in between is k.

Based on this idea, we can write the code, but it is not easy. Consider the following:

  • How do we use a map? <prefixSum, count>?
  • Why do we need map.put(0, 1)?

Consider the examples:

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[1, 1, 1]       k = 2               // 2
[-1, -1, -1] k = -2 // 2
[1, 2, 3, 4, -10, 1, 2, 3] k = 3 // 6

Note: Difficult

  • Why should we do it in one pass and update count in map dynamically?
  • Why do we use sum - k instead of sum + k?
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public int subarraySum(int[] nums, int k) {
// assume nums is not null
int n = nums.length;
Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<>(); // <prefixSum, count>
map.put(0, 1);
int count = 0;
int sum = 0;

for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
sum += nums[i];
if (map.containsKey(sum - k)) {
count += map.get(sum - k);
}
map.put(sum, map.getOrDefault(sum, 0) + 1);
}

return count;
}

Time: $O(N)$
Space: $O(N)$


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